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Uyghur wchildren on a street in central Khotan in China's western Xinjiang Province. Many Uyghurs, especially younger urban males, have reacted to Beijing's 'top down' style of rule with covert and overt shows of resistance. Some support ecological causes, greater religious freedoms, native language training, programs to prevent and treat AIDS, or even anti-alcohol campaigns, and yet others actively engage in illegal activities, such as drug-smuggling and acts of violence. As a result, perhaps of China's more open door policy of Deng Xiaoping and his successors, the level of civil unrest increased dramatically during the 1990s.